Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states (German:Bundesland, or Land). Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty.
With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer (literally: area states).
Munich (/ˈmjuːnɪk/; also /ˈmjuːnɪx/ in UK English; German:München, pronounced[ˈmʏnçn̩],Bavarian:Minga[ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and largest city of the Germanstate of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg and the 12th biggest city of the European Union with a population of above 1.5million. The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. The city is a major centre of art, advanced technologies, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business and tourism in Germany and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching #1 in Germany and #4 worldwide according to the 2015 Mercer survey.
The name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes. Black and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the city's official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, the town became the country's sole capital in 1506. Catholic Munich was a cultural stronghold of the Counter-Reformation and a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes; as the townsfolk would rather open the gates of their town than risk siege and almost inevitable destruction. Like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
The history of the region is connected to the city of Munich.
The district was established in 1852 and underwent several changes due to the ongoing incorporation of municipalities into the city of Munich. In 1972 the constant shrinking of the district was compensated by adding nine municipalities from the former district of Wolfratshausen.
The district is located in the east and the south of the city Munich, mostly covering the moraine plain around Munich. In the south of the district the foothills of the Alps start, which also contain the highest elevation of the district, two hills 703 m above sea level in the municipality Schäftlarn. The lowest elevation with 471 m is near Unterschleißheim in the north of the district. The main river is the Isar, which also flows through the city of Munich.
Based on the book Vengeance about Yuval Aviv, who states he was a Mossad agent, Munich follows a squad of assassins as they track down and kill alleged members of the group Black September, which had kidnapped and murdered eleven Israeli athletes.
Shot in Malta,Budapest, Paris and New York City, Munich was a critical success but is also one of Spielberg's lowest-grossing films. It garnered positive reviews and five Academy Awards nominations: Best Picture, Best Director (Spielberg), Best Adapted Screenplay (Kushner and Roth), Best Film Editing (Michael Kahn) and Best Original Score (John Williams). Its worldwide box office gross was $130,358,911.